Progressive Retinal Athrophy; progressive degeneration of the retina in both eyes that leads to blindness.
Hypothyroidism; which causes a reduced metabolic rate. Autoimmune destruction of the thyroid.
Hip Dysplasia; painful developmental malformation or subluxation of the hip joints that leads to painful and crippling arthritis. Often seen in German Shepherds and very common in many large breed dogs.
Cairn terriers, West Highland white terriers, Shar peis, Scottish terriers, Lhasa apsos, Wire-hared Fox terriers, Dalmatians, Irish setters, Boston terriers, Pugs, Golden retrievers, Boxers, English setters, Labrador retrievers, and Miniature Schnauzer:
Atropic Dermatitis; common skin disease linked to allergies.
Smooth Fox Terrier, Havanese, Bichon Frise, Boston Terrier, Miniature Poodle, Silky Terrier, Toy Poodle, American Cocker Spaniel, Standard Poodle, and Miniature Schnauzer: Cataract;
Cataract formation is one of the most common eye diseases in dogs, which, according to the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, affects about 97 breeds in which inheritance is suspected.
Doberman Pinscher, French Bulldog, Great Danes, Shih Tzu, Poodle (all sizes), German short haired and wire haired pointers, Scottish terriers, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Rottweilers, and Shetland sheepdog:
Von Willebrands Disease; bleeding disorder caused by defective blood platelet function. Some 59 other breeds can be affected by this disease.
Great Danes and Dobermans:
Wobbler Syndrome; weakness starts in the hind legs and progresses to paralysis.
Ruptured Disk; a problem that often occurs in dogs with short legs.
Dalmatians, English setters, bull terriers, and Australian cattle dogs:
Cocker spaniels, beagles, and bloodhounds:
Cherry Eye; prolapsed tear gland, giving the dog a red-eyed appearance and making the eyes susceptible to infection.
Genetic Predisposition to Cancers; about 80 % of death of this breed are caused by cancer. It is thought to be the result of a defect on the p53 gene, which suppresses tumors.
Golden retrievers and Newfoundlands:
Aortic Stenosis; narrowed aorta causes changes in the electrical rhythm of the heart, leading to sudden death.
Bloodhounds, Great Danes, Atika, Weimaraner, Standard Poodle, Setters:
Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus; large deep-chested breeds are more likely to experience “bloat.” The dog’s stomach fills up with gas and fluid and then twists upon its long axis, shutting off blood supply to vital organs. It is a medical emergency that kills rapidly if not treated.
Pugs: Pug Dog Encephalitis is one of the inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) which cause seizures in dogs affecting Pug dogs of either sex. The disease used to be considered unique to the Pug breed. However, similar disease has been reported recently in Maltese, Pekingese and Yorkshire Terrier breeds.
Other medical alerts:
Drug toxicity from human medications administered by owners is one of the most common types of canine poisoning. Do not give your dog ibuprofen or acetaminophen for pain. They can cause kidney damage or gastric ulcers in dogs. (Also see my blog on food that can poison dogs in -Garlic for dogs- from 4/8/09)
All dogs can get heatstroke, but geriatric dogs and short nosed dogs like English bulldog, Pekingese, Boston terrier, bull mastiff, Shih Tzu, and Pomeranian are more susceptible. Their palates can get sucked into the tracheal opening when they pant heavily, obstructing breathing. These breeds have also trouble swimming because of their breathing difficulties.
Source: Dog-o-Pedia by Mary Frances Budzik and other sources.
I found a comprehensive list of dog diseases with detailed descriptions and symptoms on http://www.gopetsamerica.com/
painting by Gabriele Bungardt